Verb Tense: Part 3

Casual Speech : PAST

If you haven’t read the Part 1 and Part 2 yet, please do so before reading this page.

 

1) Past (Written)

 

1. Verb stem ends with no final consonant, 받침 → attach ㅆ다.
  • 가다 → 가 + ㅆ 다 → 갔다 = went
  • 서다 → 서 + ㅆ 다 → 섰다 = stood

EXCEPTION:

1. 하다 → 했다 = did
2. If ~다 is preceded by the vowel ㅜ, attach 었다.
ex) 주다 → 주 + 었다 → 주었다 = give

 

2. Verb stem ends with a final consonant, 받침 → attach 었다 or 았다
  • For vowels, ㅏ and ㅗ → attach 았다

ex) 날다 → 날았다=flew, 삶다 → 삶았다 = boiled

  • For vowels, ㅓ, ㅜ, ㅡ and ㅣ→ attach 었다

ex) 먹다 → 먹었다 = ate, 죽다 → 죽었다=died, 비다 → 비었다 = emptied

EXCEPTION:

1. 듣다 : 듣 → 들 → 들었다 = listened
2. Verb stem ends with final consonant, 받침, ㅂ → remove ㅂ, then attach 웠다.
ex) 굽다 → 구웠다 = baked/roasted/grilled
ex) 줍다 → 주웠다 = picked up off the ground

 

3. Verb stem ending has ㅣ as a vowel, and no final consonant, 받침 → change ㅣ to ㅕ and attach ㅆ as the final consonant, 받침
  • 빌리다 : 빌리 → 빌렸 → 빌렸다 = borrowed
  • 그리다 : 그리 → 그렸 → 그렸다 = drew (as in a picture, drawing)

 

4. Verb stem ending has ㅗ as a vowel and no final consonant, 받침 → change ㅗ to ㅘ and attach ㅆ as the final consonant, 받침
  • 보다 → 봤다 = saw/looked/watched
  • 오다 → 왔다 = came

 

5. Verb stem ending has ㅡ as a vowel → replace ㅡ with ㅓ and then attach ㅆ as the final consonant, 받침
    • 쓰다 : 쓰 → 썼 → 썼다 = wrote

EXCEPTION:

Verb stem that ends with → remove , attach a final consonant, 받침 ㄹ to the remaining verb stem
and then attach or at the end.

  • 흐르다 : 흐르 → 흘렀 → 흘렀다 = flowed

2) Past (Spoken)

 

It is almost identical to casual past written form. Just change the verb ending, 다 to 어.
  • 갔다 → 갔어 = went
  • 날았다 → 날았어 = flew
  • 빌렸다 → 빌렸어 = borrowed
  • 왔다 → 왔어 = came
  • 썼다 → 썼어 = wrote

CREDIT: Photo by Tyler Lastovich

No Comments Yet

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

seven + 14 =

Website security