Verb Tense: Part 2

Casual Speech : PRESENT

If you haven’t read the Part 1 yet, please go to this link.

 

1) Present (Written)

 

1. Verb stem ends with a final consonant, 받침 → replace 다 with 는다.
  • 듣다 → 듣는다 = to listen

ex) 음악을 듣는다 = to listen to music : 음악=music, 을=object particle

  • 먹다 → 먹는다 = to eat

ex) 아침을 먹는다 = to eat breakfast : 아침=breakfast, 을=object particle

 

2. Verb stem ends with no final consonant, 받침 → replace 다 with ㄴ다.
  • 가다 → 간다 = to go

ex) 한국에 간다 = to go to Korea : 한국=Korea, 에=to, place particle

 

3. Verb stem ends with ㄹ as a final consonant, 받침 → replace ㄹ with ㄴ다.
  • 팔다 → 판다 = to go

ex) 장난감을 판다 = to sell toy(s) : 장난감=toy, 을=object particle

In Korean language, it is common to ignore if a noun is singular or plural and the exact meaning is understood by context. But if you want to say more clearly you will use noun counters to be specific.
For example, you can say ‘장난감 2개 샀어요.’ meaning you bought 2 toys. I’ll talk about Counters in a separate post.

2) Present (Spoken)

 

1. Verb stem ending has a vowel, ㅏ or ㅓ and no final consonant, 받침 → remove 다.
  • 가다 → 가 = to go
  • 사다 → 사 = to buy

EXCEPTION:
하다 → 해 = to do
말하다 → 말해 = to speak

 

2. Verb stem ending has a vowel, ㅗ or ㅜ and no final consonant, 받침:
  • ㅗ changes to ㅘ

ex) 보다 → 봐 = to see/look/watch

  • ㅜ changes to ㅝ

ex) 꿈꾸다 → 꿈꿔 = to dream

 

3. Verb stem ends with 르 → remove 르, attach a final consonant, 받침 ㄹ to the remaining verb stem and then attach 라 or 러 at the end.
  • ㅏ or ㅗ + 르 → attach 라

ex) 자르다 → 잘라 = to cut, 모르다 → 몰라 = to not know

  • ㅓ, ㅜ or ㅣ + 르 → attach 러

ex) 거르다 → 걸러 = to filter, 서두르다 → 서둘러 = to hurry

 

4. Verb stem has ㅎ as a final consonant → attach 아.
  • 좋다 → 좋아 = to like
  • 낳다 → 낳아 = to give birth to

 


FUTURE

With Present tense verbs you can create future tense sentences by adding time words.
For example,

내일 영화 봐 = (I) see a movie tomorrow
내일=tomorrow, 영화=movie

CREDIT: Photo by Tyler Lastovich

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