Korean Sentence Characteristics

Korean Sentence Characteristics

1. Subject + Object + Verb

나는   +   주스를   +   마십니다
I        +   juice    +    drink
= I drink juice

2. The verb must come at the end; the orders of the remaining words are flexible.

나는       수요일에              도서관에서          책을         읽어요
I     on Wednesday      at the library     a book       read

수요일에                 나는           도서관에서         책을       읽어요
On Wednesday       I           at the library     a book    read

나는         도서관에서            수요일에            책을          읽어요
I          at the library    on Wednesday     a book       read

나는       책을             수요일에                도서관에서          읽어요
I          a book     on Wednesday       at the library       read

3. A subject is commonly omitted in natural sounding colloquial Korean.

갔어요 = (subject omitted) went

Unlike English, Korean relies more on contexts, shared assumptions, and nonverbal signs than on the WORDS themselves.

4. Particles/Markers come after nouns to mark their grammatical functions.

The below are a few basic particles you need to know. I will add a more comprehensive list of particles on a later post.


~가, ~이 : Subject particle
~는, ~은 : Topic particle
~을, ~를 : Object particle
~에 : Time/Place particle


 

유나가 노래를 불러요 = Yuna sings a song.
유나 + 가 (Subject particle),     노래 + 를(Object particle)

민호는 2시에 학교에 가요 = Mino goes to school at 2.
2시 + 에(Time particle),     학교 + 에(Place particle)

5. In order to change the verb tense, the ending of a verb dictionary form is changed.

Dictionary form is a verb form that you see when you look up a verb in a dictionary. You also need to know that a dictionary form is never used in written or spoken Korean. Here is a brief overview of the verb tense. (Edited 1/25/2018)

 

가다 : dictionary form = to go

갔다 : past tense, used in written Korean, casual = went
갔어 : past tense, used in spoken Korean, casual = went
갔어요 : past tense, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = went
갔습니다* : past tense, used in written Korean or spoken Korean, very polite = went

갈 거다 : future tense, used in written Korean, casual = will go
갈 거야 : future tense, used in spoken Korean, casual = will go
갈 거예요 : future tense, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = will go
갑니다 OR 갈 겁니다* : future tense, used in written Korean or spoken Korean, very polite = will go

* When speaking very politely Koreans use the verb forms that are commonly used in written Korean.

6. Making a quesiton is pretty similar to making a statement.

Casual or casual polite statements can become questions by simply raising the intonation at the end of the sentences.

 

갔어 : past tense statement, used in spoken Korean, casual = went
갔어? : past tense question, used in spoken Korean, casual = went
갔어요 : past tense statement, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = went
갔어요? : past tense question, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = went

갈 거야 : future tense statement, used in spoken Korean, casual = will go
갈 거야? : future tense question, used in spoken Korean, casual = will go
갈 거예요 : future tense statement, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = will go
갈 거예요? : future tense question, used in spoken Korean, casual polite = will go

Edited 1/25/2018

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