Adjective Tense: Part 3

Korean adjective tense

Casual Speech : PAST

If you haven’t read the Part 1 yet, please go to this link.


In Korean, adjectives operate as ‘descriptive verbs‘ and they can be conjugated into different tenses like the way typical verbs are.

 

1) Past (Written)

1. Word stem that has a final consonant, 받침 preceded by vowels as below:
  • ㅏ or ㅗ + final consonant, 받침 → change ‘다’ to ‘았다’

ex) 작다 → 작았다 = was small
높다 → 높았다 = was high

  • ㅓ, ㅜ or ㅣ + final consonant, 받침 → change ‘다’ to ‘었다’

ex) 적다 → 적었다 = was small quantity
굵다 → 굵었다 = was thick
길다 → 길었다 = was long

 

2. Word stem that has ‘ㅏ’ as a vowel + ‘ㅎ’ as a final consonant, 받침 → change ‘ㅏ’ to ‘ㅐ’, change ‘ㅎ’ to ‘ㅆ’

ex) 노랗다 → 노랬다 = was yellow
파랗다 → 파랬다 = was blue

 

3. Word stem that has ‘ㅂ’ as a final consonant, 받침 → remove ‘ㅂ다’, attach ‘웠다’

ex) 두껍다 → 두꺼웠다 = was thick
뜨겁다 → 뜨거웠다 = was hot

 

4. Word ends with ‘하다’ → change ‘하다’ to ‘했다’

ex) 지루하다 → 지루했다 = was boring

 

5. Word stem that ends with ‘ㅡ’ with no final consonant → change ‘ㅡ’ to ‘ㅓㅆ’

ex) 크다 → 컸다 = was big

EXCEPTION:
1) Word stem ends with ‘ㅏ’ + ‘ㅡ’ combo → change ‘ㅡ’ to ‘ㅏㅆ’
ex) 나쁘다 → 나빴다 = was bad

2) Word ends with ‘르다’ → change to ‘~ㄹ랐다’
ex) 빠르다 → 빨랐다

 

6. Word stem that ends with ‘ㅣ’ with no final consonant → change ‘ㅣ’ to ‘ㅕㅆ’

ex) 느리다 → 느렸다 = was slow

2) Past (Spoken)

Change the adjective to casual past written adjective form, then change 다 to 어.

ex)
작다 → 작았다 → 작았어 = was small
높다 → 높았다 → 높았어 = was high
노랗다 → 노랬다 → 노랬어 = was yellow
파랗다 → 파랬다 → 파랬어 = was blue
두껍다 → 두꺼웠다 → 두꺼웠어 = was thick
지루하다 → 지루했다 → 지루했어 = was boring

Adjective Tense Introduction

Casual Speech: PRESENT

Casual Speech: PAST

Casual Speech: FUTURE

Polite Speech: PRESENT

Polite Speech: PAST

Polite Speech: FUTURE

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